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武汉新型冠状病毒防护口罩使用常识

发布时间:2020.02.12    点击数: 23025

由于武汉新冠病毒流行,现在口罩变得一罩难求,良时智能技术中心查阅了口罩相关的专业知识,对口罩的性能、使用、回收等方面做一些汇总介绍,望能给大家提供一些作用能更好的保护自己及家人。

 

Due to the prevalence of Wuhan novel coronavirus, masks have become more and more difficult to find. Liangshi IntelRobot technology center has consulted the relevant professional knowledge of masks, and made some brief introduction on the performance, use, recycling and other aspects of masks, with the hope to provide you with some functions to better protect yourself and your family.

 

 目前市面上流通的口罩有面纱口罩、海绵口罩、活性炭口罩、医用口罩和专业防护口罩等等,据专家介绍,目前只有专业防护口罩中的N95口罩及医用外科口罩才能对阻断武汉新冠病毒有效。

 

At present, masks on the market include gauze masks, pitta masks, activated charcoal masks, medical surgical masks and professional protective masks. According to experts, only N95 respirators and medical surgical masks in professional protective masks can effectively block Wuhan novel coronavirus.

海绵口罩pitta mask

 

活性炭口罩Activated charcoal mask

 

医用外科口罩medical surgical mask

 

专业防护口罩professional protective mask

 

口罩阻断病毒传播的机理主要是“过滤”!并不是口罩上有什么化学物质能杀死病毒,因此对武汉新冠病毒是否有效就要从口罩的过滤效率来分析判断。

 

The mechanism of mask blocking virus transmission is mainly "filtering"! It's not that there are any chemicals on the mask that can kill the virus. Hence whether it is effective against the novel coronavirus in Wuhan can only depends on the filter efficiency of the mask.

 

 

武汉新型冠状病毒主要通过呼吸道传播,传播方式为飞沫传播、飞沫核传播及尘埃传播。新冠病毒平均直径为100纳米,即0.1微米。但病毒颗粒不能个体生存,必须依附在媒介上,比如飞沫、飞沫核、尘埃等,不管是何种媒介,其颗粒大小都是病毒的数倍,比如飞沫及飞沫核的直径>5微米。

 

The novel coronavirus in Wuhan is mainly transmitted through the respiratory tract, which is spread by droplets, droplet core and dust. The average diameter of the novel coronavirus is 100 nm, or 0.1 μ M. However, virus particles can not survive alone, and must be attached to a certain media, such as droplets, droplets core, dust, etc. No matter what media, the particle size is several times that of the virus, such as droplets and droplets core with a diameter of more than 5 microns.

 

 海绵口罩 Pitta mask

 

根据PITTAMASK海绵口罩说明文件,其对花粉的过滤效率为99%,而花粉的粒径为20-50微米,显然这种口罩是不能有效阻断病毒的。这种口罩外形美观、透气性好、可以洗涤,适用日常居家旅行,不适合当前防范武汉新冠病毒。

 

According to the description of pitta mask, its filtering efficiency for pollen is 99%, and the particle size of pollen is 20-50 μm, which obviously, this mask can not effectively block the virus. This kind of mask has beautiful appearance, good air permeability and can be washed. It is suitable for daily home travel but not appropriate for the current prevention of Wuhan novel coronavirus.

 

 

 活性炭口罩

 Activated charcoal mask

 

活性炭口罩就是在普通的防尘口中,夹了一层活性炭。这种口罩除了普通的除尘功能外,还具备了对有机物吸附的功能。适合在有机物污染的环境下佩戴使用,比如新装修好的房子里、喷漆作业环境等。

 

Activated charcoal mask is to sandwich a layer of activated charcoal in the ordinary dust-proof mask. In addition to the ordinary dust proof function, the mask also has the function of adsorbing organic matters. It is suitable for wearing in the environment that is polluted by organic matters, such as newly decorated house, painting environment, etc.

 

活性炭对气溶胶状态的飞沫核也具有很好的吸附效果,其过滤效果要比普通防尘口罩要好的多,能防范5微米以下颗粒。虽然专家没有推荐这款口罩,但是如果实在买不到专用口罩,活性炭口罩也是具有一定效果的。

活性炭口罩一般为灰色或黑色,但颜色不是判断活性炭口罩的唯一标准,市场上有些黑色的口罩冒充活性炭口罩,其中间是没有活性炭材料的,可以剖解口罩来判别。

 

Activated charcoal also has a good adsorption effect on aerosol droplets. Its filtering effect is much better than that of ordinary dust proof masks, and it can prevent particles below 5 microns. Although experts didn't recommend this mask, if you can't buy an exclusive mask, the activated charcoal mask also has a certain effect. Activated charcoal masks are generally gray or black, but the color is not the only standard to judge activated charcoal masks. Some black masks in the market pretend to be activated charcoal masks, but among which there is no activated charcoal material, so we can dissect the masks to judge.

 

 医用口罩 Medical mask

 

标准的医用口罩由三层以上组成,外层是为阻水层、中间为过滤层、内层为吸湿层。

 

The standard medical mask is composed of more than three layers, the outer layer is water blocking layer, the middle layer is filter layer, and the inner layer is hygroscopic layer.

 

外科级的医用口罩对于0.3微米的颗粒物透过率为18.3%,如果医患两者都配佩戴医用外科口罩的话,其过滤效率翻倍,对0.3微米颗粒过滤效率达到97%,可以达到专业防护口罩N95级别。因此,专家建议是正确的。

The penetration rate of surgical grade medical masks for 0.3 μ m particles is 18.3%. If both doctors and patients wear medical surgical masks, the filtration efficiency will double, and the filtration efficiency for 0.3 μm particles will reach 97%, which can reach the N95 level of professional protective masks. Therefore, the expert advice is reasonable.

 

目前市售的医用口罩鱼龙混杂,质量参差不齐。据我观察,有些所谓的医用口罩其第二层和第三层都是同种材料,孔径也比较大,对于是否能有效拦截病毒值得怀疑。选购口罩,应首选有“LA”防护标记及“QS”生产许可标记的产品。

 

At present, the medical masks sold in the market are mixed with lots of poor quality ones. According to my observation, the second and third layers of some so-called medical masks are of the same material, and the aperture is relatively large, so it is questionable whether they can effectively intercept the virus. The products with "LA" protection mark and "QS" production license mark shall be the prefered choice when purchasing masks.

 

 

 专业防护口罩

 professional protective mask

 

所谓的N95口罩,是对>0.3微米以上的颗粒过滤效率达到95%以上。前缀“N”是表示防护特性,不耐油的意思。后缀的数字是过滤效率。因此,不管是N95、KN95、P95、N100、P100,都是可以有效阻断病毒的。

 

The genuine N95 respirators can filter more than 95% of particles larger than 0.3 μ M. The prefix "N" means its protective property and not oil resistant. The number of suffixes is its filter efficiency. Therefore, no matter N95, KN95, P95, N100 or P100, they can effectively block the virus.

目前,市面上N95非常稀少,一罩难求,在这种情况下我认为可以退而求次,如果有N90的口罩,也是可以有效阻断病毒,但前提是在人群聚集的公共场合下,每个人都必须佩戴口罩。如果两个人都佩戴N95口罩的话,其对冠状病毒的拦截效率可达到99%以上,是十分安全的。

 

At present, N95 is very rare on the market, even one mask is hard to find. In this case, I think we can take the second best. If there is N90 respirator, it can also effectively block the virus, but on premise that everyone must wear the mask in public places where people gather. If two people wear N95 respirators, the interception efficiency of coronavirus can reach more than 99%, which is very safe.

 

专业防护口罩由于滤层厚,滤孔小,因此透气性不佳,因此这种口罩的外形是突出的,以增加过滤面积,使透气性得到保证。

 

Due to the thick filter layer and small filter holes, the air permeability of the professional protective mask is poor. Therefore, the shape of the mask is outstanding to increase the filtering area and ensure the air permeability.

 

 

 

 带呼吸阀的防护口罩

 professional protective mask with breathing valve

 

还有一种带呼吸阀型的专业防护口罩,这种口罩吸气时空气透过滤层,呼气时气体通过呼吸阀,以增加佩戴舒适性。但正由于这种特点,这种口罩只能保护自己,而不能保护他人。如果是患者或疑似病例,千万不能佩戴这种带呼吸阀的口罩,会把病毒传播别人。

 

There is also a kind of professional protective mask with a breathing valve. When inhale with the mask , the air passes through the filter layer, and when exhale, the air passes through the breathing valve, so as to increase the wearing comfort. But because of this characteristic, this kind of mask can only protect himself, not others. If he is a infected patient or suspected case, never wear this mask with a breathing valve, it will spread the virus to others.

 

带呼吸器的口罩 professional protective mask with breathing valve

 

 

 口罩的回收利用

 recycle of mask

 

口罩是低价值的消耗商品,一般一次性使用。但现在武汉新冠流行的非常时期里,我们要变废为宝,重复使用口罩,以缓解市场供求压力。

 

Masks are low value consumable goods and are generally disposable. But now in the very period when Wuhan novel coronavirus is epidemic, we need to turn waste into treasure and reuse masks to relieve the pressure of market supply and demand.

 

据专家介绍,武汉新冠病毒怕热、怕化学消毒品,在体外生存能力低,针对这些特征,我想了几个简单的口罩再利用办法与大家分享:

 

According to experts, Wuhan novel coronavirus is afraid of heat and chemical disinfectants, and its vitro viability is low. In view of these characteristics, I'd like to share with you several simple ways to reuse masks:

 

高温消毒再生法

High temperature disinfection regeneration method

 

对于武汉新型冠状病毒在56℃温度下30分钟即被灭活这个特征,将使用过的口罩放置在取暖器上烘烤30分钟以上,取暖器温度高于56℃,但又不至于太烫把口罩给烤糊了。

 

The novel coronavirus can be inactivated at 30 minutes at 56 degrees centigrade. So the mask can be placed on the heater for over 30 minutes. The heater temperature was higher than 56 degrees, but it should not be too hot to bake it.

 

当然也可以把水烧开后,用沸腾产生的蒸汽烫一下,蒸汽温度达到100℃,因此可以缩短再生时间,一两分钟即可。蒸汽再生操作时要特别小心,最好用镊子夹持,以免烫伤。

 

Of course, you can also boil the water and scald it with the steam generated by boiling. The steam temperature reaches 100 ℃, so the regeneration time can be shortened, just a minute or two. Special care shall be taken during steam regeneration operation. It is better to clamp with tweezers to avoid scalding.

 

口罩切勿用吹风机高温再生,以免把拦截吸附的病毒重新吹出来。口罩也不能直接用火烤,口罩一般都是用聚丙烯熔喷无纺材料制成,不耐明火及高温。

 

Do not use a blower to regenerate the mask at high temperature, so as not to blow the intercepted virus out again. Masks can not be directly baked with fire, as masks are generally made of polypropylene melt blown with non-woven materials, which are not resistant to open fire and high temperature.

 

暴晒再生法

Direct-sun exposure regeneration method

 

对于病毒在体外干燥环境下不能长时间生存的特性,只要将使用过的口罩置于太阳底下暴晒2个小时以上,加上紫外线的作用,是可以杀灭病毒的。

 

   In view of its characteristics that the virus can not survive for a long time in dry environment in vitro, as long as the used mask is exposed to the sun for more than 2 hours, plus the effect of ultraviolet, it can kill the virus.

 

化学消毒再生法

Chemical disinfection regeneration method

 

对于病毒对酒精和消毒剂敏感的特性,在使用过的口罩上喷洒75%浓度以上医用酒精或含氯的消毒剂,然后晾干至无味,也是行之有效的。

 

As the virus is sensitive to alcohol and disinfectants, it is also effective to spray 75% medical alcohol or disinfectant containing chlorine on the used mask, and then dry it to tasteless.

 

本人不推荐用水清洗口罩,揉搓清洗口罩会使过滤材料滤孔变形,过滤效率降低。另外,普通洗涤液暂未证明对病毒可以有效灭活。

 

   I do not recommend cleaning the mask with water. Rubbing and cleaning the mask will deform the filtering hole of the filter material and reduce the filtering efficiency. In addition, the ordinary detergent is not proved that it can effectively inactivate the virus.

 

口罩再生是现阶段无奈之举,有条件的话还是需要勤换口罩。对于在高危场所使用过的口罩还是不建议重复使用。

 

   Mask regeneration is a helpless move at this stage. If conditions permit, it is still necessary to change masks frequently. It is not recommended to reuse the masks that have been used in high-risk places.

 

最后提醒大家,废弃的口罩一定要装入垃圾带,不能随意抛弃,以免贻害别人。

 

Finally, I remind you that the discarded masks must be put into the garbage bag, and can not be discarded at will, so as not to harm others.

 

 口罩的佩戴方法 Wearing methods of mask

 

N95口罩佩戴方法

Wearing methods of N95 mask:

医用外科口罩佩戴方法

Wearing methods of medical surgical masks

 

 

本文知识纯属普及及推广,仅供参考,良时不负任何法律责任。

 

The knowledge in this article is only for reference, and Liangshi will not bear any legal responsibility.

 

 

        关于良时智能 About Liangshi IntelRobot:
        上海良时智能科技股份有限公司(股票代码:837430 厚积薄发 持续创新),为全球客户提供表面处理系统解决方案,从业20多年,是一个集研发、设计、制造、工程安装、工程咨询于一体的专业化制造及自动化智能控制系统集成公司,能为客户解决:
        Shanghai Liangshi IntelRobot Technology Corporation (Stock Code: 837430 Accumulate richly and break forth vastly; innovate continuously) provides surface treatment sandblasting system solution for global customers. By engaging in this industry for more than twenty years, we're a professional manufacturing and automatic intelligent control system corporation, which integrates researching, designing, manufacturing, project installation and project consulting. We can provide our customers with:
        1、表面处理喷抛丸、喷丸强化设备、热喷涂和涂装设备工艺系统解决方案和工艺装备;
              We provide process system solution and process equipments of surface treatment sandblasting shot blasting, shot peening, enameling, thermal spraying, coating equipment.
        2、自动化和机器人应用工艺系统解决方案和工艺装备;
              We provide professional system solution and process equipments of automation and robot technology application.
        3、食品乳品、制药、生物、制冷、石油化工、船舶制造、能源、造纸、纺织系统领域承压系统集成整体解决方案;
              We provide professional integrated solution for pressure bearing system in fields of food dairy, biopharmaceutical, refrigerating, petrochemical, marine engineering, energy, paper-making, fabrics, etc.
        4、涂装环保设备:VOC废气、废水、粉尘处理和噪音治理系统工艺解决方案和工艺装备。
              We provide environment protection blasting and painting equipment: process solution and equipment of VOCs waste gas, waste water, dust, noise treatment system.
        企业主导产品如下 The leading products of our company are as follows:
        主营业务:表面处理工程系统集成的设计、研发、生产和销售。
        Main business: design, research, production and sales of surface treatment engineering system integration.
        六类主要产品:自动化涂装生产线、智能机器人喷涂系统、自动化喷抛丸生产线、智能机器人喷抛丸强化系统、自动化热喷涂系统、涂装节能环保设备。
        Six main product categories are: automatic painting production line, intelligent robot painting system, automatic shot/wheel blasting production line, intelligent robot shot peening system, automatic thermal spraying system, energy saving and environmental protection equipment for painting.
        产品主要应用于:新材料、新能源、工程机械、汽车制造、集装箱、船舶海洋工程、航空航天、港口桥梁、电子电气、环保工程、印刷造纸机械、医疗机械、纺织机械等领域。
        The products are mainly applied in: new materials, new energy, engineering machinery, automobile manufacturing, containers, marine engineering, aeronautics and astronautics, port bridges, electronic and electrical, environmental protection engineering, printing and papermaking machinery, medical machinery, textile machinery and so on.
        公司生产的表面工程系统集成具备智能、自动化的特点,可实现工业生产过程自动化控制,因而属于自动化装备。根据《高端装备制造业“十二五”规划》中对高端装备的定义“主要包括传统产业转型升级和战略性新兴产业发展所需的高技术高附加值装备”,公司产品属于高端装备,是为国民经济其他行业提供技术装备的战略性产业。
        The surface engineering system of our company integrates the characteristics of intelligence and automation, it can realize the automatic control of industrial production process, so it belongs to automatic equipment. According to the definition of premium-end equipment of 《The 125th programme of premium-end equipment manufacturing industry》, “it mainly includes the high technology and high value-added equipment required by traditional industrial transformation upgrading and the development of strategic new-emerging industries”. The company's products belong to the premium-end equipment, which is a strategic industry that provides technical equipment for the other industries of the national economy.
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